Ultimately, all parties have recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.  Although the agreement has been welcomed by many people, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also been leveled. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals and not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without “no deeds, only promises” and believes that only an interterritorial tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  NrDC is working to make the Global Climate Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments for the historic 2015 agreement and strengthened initiatives to reduce pollution. At present, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have consolidated their climate proposals with formal approval, including the United States for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet formally joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran.
India`s INDC highlighted the challenges of eradicating poverty while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. About 24% of the world`s population without access to electricity (304 million) lived in India. Nevertheless, the country planned to “reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35% by 2030” compared to its 2005 level. The country has also attempted to buy about 40 percent of its electricity from renewable energy sources and not fossil fuels by 2030. The INDC found that plans to implement domestic resources would not be affordable: it estimated that it would take at least $2.5 trillion to implement climate change measures by 2030. India would achieve this goal through technology transfer (transfer of capacity and equipment from more developed to less developed countries and international financing, including support from the Green Climate Fund (a programme to support populations vulnerable to the effects of climate change by investing in low-emission technologies and developing climate-resilient development). There is a lot of misinformation about the Paris agreement, including the idea that it will hurt the U.S. economy. It was a series of unsused claims repeated by Trump in his rose garden speech in 2017, arguing that the deal would cost the U.S.
economy $3 trillion by 2040 and $2.7 million in jobs by 2025, making us less competitive with China and India. But, as the auditors found, these statistics come from a March 2017 unmasked study that exaggerated the future cost of reducing emissions, underestimated advances in energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, and totally ignored the huge health and economic costs of climate change itself. . . .
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